Story Links PDF Box Score Preview vs. UNI 5/11/2019 – 6 PM Sarah Maddox (Henderson, Nev.) was the other Bulldog with two hits. Newman, who improved to 27-6, equaled her career-high in strikeouts with 18, and threw 69 strikes out of 88 total pitches. Bradley (29-21) managed to put just three balls in play with two pop outs and one fly out in Newman’s fifth career perfect game, all this season. She helped herself out at the plate as she was one of six Bulldogs to record two hits. ESPN+ The Bulldogs added their next run in the fourth inning on an unusual play. Abby Buie (Gardner, Kan.), who reached on a one-out fielder’s choice, stole second with Ryan at the plate as the throw down hit the Braves’ pitcher, Emma Jackson, in the back and rolled all the way to the fence and allowed Buie to score. Ryan, who then lined a single to left field and stole second, scored the team’s third run on Roemmich’s second double that went into the left field gap. Roemmich with 15 doubles is now third all-time at for a single season. Drake tacked on four runs in the fifth inning. Ryan cleared the bases with a standup double that scored three runs. Roemmich followed with her own standup double that scored Ryan. PEORIA, Ill. – Nicole Newman (Madison, Wis.) threw her fifth career perfect game to help send the Drake University softball team to its second-straight Missouri Valley Conference Tournament title game with a 7-0 win over Bradley Friday afternoon at Peterson Field at the Louisville Slugger Complex in Peoria, Ill. Drake (41-14) will play Saturday afternoon at 1 p.m. on ESPN+ against the winner of SIU or UNI, which played after the Bulldogs and Braves. The winner of Saturday’s championship contest earns the Valley’s automatic berth to the NCAA Tournament. Full Schedule Roster Newman, who struck out the final seven batters of the game, struck out the side five times in her 23rd game with 10 or more strikeouts. Print Friendly Version Watch Live Next Game: Live Stats Mandi Roemmich (West Des Moines, Iowa) ignited the Bulldogs’ offense in the leadoff spot. Roemmich clubbed two doubles and drove in two runs. Libby Ryan (Mount Vernon, Iowa) was a spark in the nine spot of the order with two hits, including a bases clearing double in the fifth inning. Kennedy Frank (Chesterfield, Mo.), who also had two hits, had Drake’s first double as it scored in their first at-bat after Roemmich drew a leadoff walk and two batters later Frank’s 10th double found the left field gap for Roemmich to score the first run. Taryn Pena (Columbia, Ill.), who had two hits, had the team’s other double and has 14 this season, tied for fifth all-time in a single season. It is her 41st career double, a total that puts her alone in third all-time in program history. It is just one behind the top mark held by Haley Nybo (2012-15) and Pam Schaffrath (1990-93).
A new set of post-Cassini papers has to deal with observational facts: Saturn and its rings cannot last billions of years.Science Magazine just added to the growing body of post-Cassini literature analyzing 13 years’ worth of data gathered by the legendary Saturn orbiter. During the last 22 “high-dive” orbits in 2017, Cassini had unprecedented opportunities to sample the space between the rings and the planet. Here are some of the surprising findings being reported.Hsu et al, “In situ collection of dust grains falling from Saturn’s rings into its atmosphere” (Science). A “ring rain” of nanoparticles detected by the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) puts an upper limit of 400 million years on the rings.Mitchell et al, “Dust grains fall from Saturn’s D-ring into its equatorial upper atmosphere” (Science). Atmospheric drag is ejecting dust from the D-ring analogous to “sawdust ejected from a circular saw as it cuts through wood.” They believe the process “plays a role in slowing the fall of the dust through the atmosphere,” but sawdust does not normally evolve back into wood.Waite et al, “Chemical interactions between Saturn’s atmosphere and its rings” (Science). This paper, with co-author Jeff Cuzzi, a ringmaster most of his professional life, cannot support billion-year rings. Water is falling into the planet from the rings at a rate of up to 45,000 kilograms per second. Other compounds are also flowing off the rings into Saturn, as measured by the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS). Here’s the team’s conclusion:The large mass of infalling material has implications for ring evolution, likely requiring transfer of material from the C ring to the D ring in a repeatable manner. The infalling material can affect the atmospheric chemistry and the carbon content of Saturn’s ionosphere and atmosphere.Cassini dives through the gap between the D Ring and Saturn during its Grand Finale before burning up in Saturn’s atmosphere on September 15, 2017.Here’s the operative quote about ages: not millions of years, but thousands?The mass of Saturn’s C ring is ~1018 kg, about 0.03 times the mass of Saturn’s moon Mimas. Therefore, if we use the mass influx inferred from the INMS measurements (4800 to 45,000 kg s–1), we calculate a lifetime of 700,000 to 7 million years for the C ring. Yet this only reflects today’s influx. The current influx is directly from the D ring rather than the C ring, which must be the ultimate supplier because the mass of the D ring [likely no more than 1% of the C ring mass] can maintain current loss rates for only 7000 to 66,000 years—a very short amount of time in terms of solar history. It is unclear whether the C ring can lose 1% of its mass into the D ring by viscous spreading over that time period.Although viscous spreading of the C ring is likely not the cause of mass transfer to the D ring, occasional transfer of ~1% of the mass of the C ring into the D ring region via a large ring-tilting event is feasible. These ring-tilting events involve a stream of planet-orbiting rubble crossing the ring plane somewhere in the C or D rings. The C ring provides the ultimate source, containing enough mass to last (at current influx rates) about 5% of the time that the rings themselves have existed (~200 million years). The D ring could be repopulated sporadically by large impact events such as those that tilted the D and C ring plane. Once enough small particles are brought into the D ring region, exospheric drag would quickly drain them into the planet, as observed by Cassini.Notice that keeping the rings old (“repopulated”) requires an appeal to the old-age standby explanation: impacts. The number of lucky impacts needed to keep the rings billions of years old, however, stretches credibility.Perry et al, “Material Flux From the Rings of Saturn Into Its Atmosphere” (Geophysical Research Letters). This team measured the flow of nanometer-sized particles from the rings that are swept up by Saturn’s atmosphere and dragged into the planet. The predicted flux was wrong, and had to be revised upward significantly. It’s “exciting” to be wrong by a factor of a hundred, isn’t it?Surprisingly, the flux is a hundred times larger than past predictions, and at least half of the material is hydrocarbon, which comprises less than 5% of the water ice‐dominated rings. Cassini’s data also show that the influx varies at least a factor of 4 and may be linked to clumps that appeared in 2015 on D68, the ringlet on the inner edge of the rings. These newly discovered particles and processes alter the evolutionary landscape of the rings and provide an exciting, rich field for future research aimed at understanding the origin and history of the rings.How This Came Across in the Popular PressLeah Crane, “Cassini revealed three big surprises before diving into Saturn” (New Scientist). Can Ms Crane bring herself to criticize planetary scientists who got things so wrong? On the subject of Saturn’s magnetic field, she comes close:The magnetic fields of planets in our solar system are all tilted to some extent – Neptune’s is off by a whopping 47 degrees. But Saturn’s magnetic field seems to be perfectly straight, and our current theories of how these fields are generated suggests that should be impossible.“If you don’t have a tilt, you would expect the magnetic field to start dying away, but as we got in really close with the Grand Finale orbits, we saw that it is not,” says Michele Dougherty at Imperial College London.Michele is a dignified and accomplished woman on the Cassini team, but she was wrong on this point. She was wrong on another point, too (as were all the Cassini scientists). Once again, they are excited about being wrong:Even the seemingly empty space between Saturn’s surface and its rings is more exciting than we thought. “There’s this connection between the rings and the upper atmosphere of Saturn that we just didn’t think would be there,” says Dougherty. “That was a complete surprise.”Crane goes on to compare the amount of infalling material (dust, ice and gas), measured to be about 45,000 kg (22,000 pounds) per second, this way:That’s the equivalent of about 1800 cars falling into Saturn every minute – such a downpour may mean that the rings are disappearing faster than we thought.A little math helps picture this. How much material should have been lost in Saturn’s assumed lifetime? 4.5 x 104 kg/s times 86,400 sec/day times 365 days/year times 4.5 x 109 years: if this has been going on for the age of the solar system, Saturn’s rings would have lost 24 x 1021 kg of material by now. In plain English, that’s a whopping 6,500 billion billion kilograms, or 4,800 million billion cars! That’s close to 240 times the entire mass of the rings. Is that credible?Groundbreaking Science Emerges from Ultra-Close Orbits of Saturn (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Will JPL apologize for getting it so wrong? Don’t count on it. Scientists must always look good to the public, because they are the high priests of knowledge in our culture.Scientists can’t be blamed for things that could not be measured or detected before, obviously, but much of what was taught about Saturn and its rings for decades has just been tossed out the window. The press release mentions “surprise” four times. How about that magnetic field? Haven’t students of geophysics been taught that a dynamo in the core generates the field? That’s been falsified, at least in the case of Saturn; “That might mean that Saturn produces its magnetic field differently from the other planets in our solar system,” Crane said. Actually, it might mean that the theory for generating magnetic fields is wrong for all planets. Philosophers of science look askance at special pleading.That’s not the only mystery or surprise, either. The whole mission was a string of surprises:According to everything scientists know about how planetary magnetic fields are generated, Saturn should not have one. It’s a mystery that physicists will be working to solve….But scientists were surprised to see that others [particles] are dragged quickly into Saturn at the equator. And it’s all falling out of the rings faster than scientists thought — as much as 22,000 pounds (10,000 kilograms) of material per second.Scientists were surprised to see what the material looks like in the gap between the rings and Saturn’s atmosphere. They knew that the particles throughout the rings ranged from large to small. But the sampling in the gap showed mostly tiny, nanometer-sized particles, like smoke, suggesting that some yet-unknown process is grinding up particles….Indeed, says project scientist Linda Spilker, “Almost everything going on in that region turned out to be a surprise.” No shame, though; “the data is tremendously exciting.”Now what? “Many mysteries remain, as we put together pieces of the puzzle,” Spilker said. “Results from Cassini’s final orbits turned out to be more interesting than we could have imagined.”In all these surprises, mysteries, and falsifications, one thing is never called into question by secular planetary scientists: the assumed age of the solar system. That figure—the Law of the Misdeeds and Perversions—cannot be altered.Instead of hiding their heads in shame, they are excited about being way off. So what is the likely impact of the revised estimates? Saturn’s rings are young. Plug that into your story of “understanding the origin and history of the rings.” The ramifications are likely to ripple across the solar system, all the way to Earth. (Visited 575 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Wide cycle lanes run all the way to Bloubergstrand in Cape Town.(Image: City of Cape Town)MEDIA CONTACTS • Maddie MazazaDirector: Planning in the City of Cape Town+27 21 400 5309.Lucille DavieCape Town is going green in more ways than one. It has a network of bicycle lanes across the city that are to be painted green to demarcate their use for bikes only.“The colour coding helps to promote safety and awareness for vehicles and pedestrians,” says the city council.It is also one of the few cities in the country that has a bicycle master plan. This involves a long-term aim of 2 000 kilometres of pedestrian and cycling facilities in the city bowl and the suburbs, as well as cycling paths alongside the MyCiTi bus routes. So far, 400 kilometres have been completed.“With the city-wide non-motorised transport (NMT) infrastructure programme being rolled out, more colourised cycle paths will be created. The city believes this will go a long way towards creating safer cycling environments, as well as encouraging other road users to share the public right of way in the city.”In all, 14 NMT projects were completed between 2006 and 2011. “Bike riding and non-motorised transport are important aspects of the vision of an integrated public transport network across the city, providing local connections and helping to make Cape Town a ‘liveable city,’” said Brett Heron, the mayoral committee member for transport.Cape Town undertook a recent trial of painting cycle lanes green, in an effort to promote safety and awareness for vehicles and pedestrians. The trial revealed that vehicles generally avoided parking in the green lanes. Previously, drivers would park on the bicycle lanes, thereby blocking the lanes for cyclists. In future, motorists who park in the lanes will have action taken against them.The green paint is skid-resistant and durable, reducing maintenance needs. The cycle lanes in Mowbray, Salt River, Woodstock and Strand Street will be painted in August. This painting is labour intensive, the council says, which means it creates employment opportunities through the Extended Public Works Programme. This is a national programme which aims to give jobless people temporary work, helping them gain skills and increase their ability to earn an income.“Our department’s focus is on the social sector which aims to create work opportunities and develop accredited training [which] will be linked to possible exit opportunities for beneficiaries,” says Cape Town.Cycle hireIn addition, it is looking into the feasibility of a bicycle hire system, a growing trend in cities like London, New York and Paris. In July, it established Transport for Cape Town, a transport authority that has started a study of the feasibility of creating a bicycle share project in the city bowl.The idea is to set up a network of bikes in racks in depots around the inner city, which can be hired and returned to another depot, with cyclists using the network of cycle lanes to get from one part of the city to another. “Cities around the world are beginning to identify bike-sharing as a mode of public transport, providing an alternative to individual vehicle trips,” explained Herron.Besides the obvious benefits of improved health through exercise, greater bicycle use will mean fewer cars in the city bowl, thus alleviating parking and congestion pressures, and reducing carbon emissions. Cape Town will look in particular at bicycle hire schemes such as London’s Barclays Bikes, Paris’s Velib and Washington’s Capital Bikes. The study will also consider the feasibility of using a smart card payment system, such as the myconnect card used for MyCiTi buses. It is expected that the system will be up and running towards mid-2015.Joburg and DurbanThe city of Johannesburg is behind Cape Town in the planning of its cycle lanes. It plans to roll out a 5km cycle lane in Noordesig in Soweto, to be completed in June 2014. It is also about to appoint a contractor to build a 15km cycle lane between the various campuses of the University of Johannesburg and Wits University, running through the suburbs of Auckland Park, Braamfontein and Doornfontein. This will also be complete by June next year.On the drawing board are plans for a non-motorised transport network, again to be finalised by the middle of next year. The network will cover areas of the inner city.Durban has limited cycle lanes, focused on the beachfront in the city centre.