Harvard Summer School is old, since it opened in 1871 as the first university summer studies program in the nation. But it’s also young, since nearly a quarter of its 6,000 students this summer were teenagers in its Secondary School Program.The Summer School also extends well beyond Harvard Yard. There were 28 overseas programs, including in China, France, Israel, and Kenya. (One recent student summed up international study by saying: “We had to take off our American goggles.”)And the seven-week summer program is big, with more than 300 courses. From late June to early August, students studied the Vietnam War, fairy tales, the anthropology of childhood, utopia, Bob Dylan (a seminar), the odes of Horace, astrobiology, video editing, the Harlem Renaissance, environmental crises, the early plays of Shakespeare, and digital storytelling. Students also did writing involving journalism, novels, short stories, travel, and food.Food was the star of one course, SWGS S-1155, better known as “Gender, Food and Culture in American History.” The professor was Marilyn Morgan, a manuscripts cataloger at the Schlesinger Library who has a Ph.D. in American history. The course’s guiding idea is that food isn’t just something to eat. It’s a shared cultural experience that on close examination reveals a lot about gender, race, and class.By the end, it taught a sobering lesson, at least regarding gender in advertising. “Not much has changed,” said Morgan. Food roles are as gendered now as they were in the America of nearly 200 years ago. “I still am astonished over how clueless people are to these sexist ads and norms in society,” wrote student Elizabeth Greif in an email, adding italics to the next sentence: “This stuff is still happening today!”When the students read snippets of food writing from 1841, 1898, and the present, Morgan said not one could identify the era of a single text. Women are still largely perceived as the ones responsible for buying, preparing, and serving food, she said — as well as the ones to blame if things go wrong.Grinding, gritty, rewardingThe 13 students in the class covered a lot of demographic ground, typical of Harvard Summer School. Four were from high school (including Greif, a rising senior from desert-bound Quartz Hill, Calif.); two came from overseas; and many of the others were Southerners. They joined to study print and television ads, 19th-century treatises on domestic skills, vintage cookbooks, and decades of scholarship on the intersection of what we eat and who we are.The coursework offered a lesson in what the Summer School means: seven weeks of grinding, gritty — but rarified and rewarding — work. “Admittedly there was a lot of reading,” Alabaman Mia Tankersley ’14 said in an email. “But honestly, having to reflect on the evolution of macaroni in the United States or soul food didn’t feel like work.”Another student, Nadine Mannering, who arrived this summer with a master’s degree from her native Australia, said the workload was “fairly intense,” but it was the first time she had been in college without having to work at a paying job, too. “I relished the opportunity to actually focus on my studies first.”Morgan’s students averaged 150 pages of reading per class, 300 pages a week. Using new software, they illustrated timelines that could eat up half a day. And their weekly writing assignments, brightened and honed, appeared on a class blog that remains open and active. “They learned,” said Morgan, that “the real challenge was how to write effectively in that short a space.”The writing is tight, and the timelines enlightening. (In the one on canned food, we learn that the billionth can of Spam was produced in 1959. In another, we get this sweet bit: 400 million M&Ms are made every day in the United States.) The texts also use vintage ads as points of argument. A 1950s TV pitch for instant coffee contains a minute of husband-wife food dynamics that today would make anyone queasy. (Instant coffee got its first popularity bump with men during World War II, said Greif, who studied it for her final project. But advertisements often “included women serving a cup to men,” she said, “despite how easy it would have been for the man to make the coffee himself.”)Using primary sourcesThe students’ final research papers required primary sources, in this case, mostly from Schlesinger. The library, part of the Radcliffe Institute of Advanced Study, houses the richest American women’s history collections, including the papers of chef Julia Child and early feminist Charlotte Perkins Gilman.Gilman, whose “Women and Economics” (1898) was on the course reading list, wanted women to change their house-centric identities. “A house does not need a wife any more than it needs a husband,” she wrote, a sentiment that put her at odds with her anti-suffragist aunt, Catharine Beecher, whose 1845 “Treatise on Domestic Economy” was also required reading. Aunt and niece were opposing bookends in the 19th-century debate over the role of women, an uneasy tension that still exists today. “I’m a feminist who loves to bake,” said Tankersley, “and I constantly think about what that means and why I’m conflicted about it.”By the end of class, most of the final papers used foods — rather than personalities — as a cultural lens. Many were previewed in the student timelines, including looks at food preservation, M&Ms, peanut butter, wedding cake, pineapple (marketed as “glam” and exotic in the 1950s), artificial sweeteners, and Cream of Wheat. The last product was part of a leitmotif in class, what Morgan called an “archetype of using subservient Others” to sell a product in the 20th century.For Cream of Wheat, at first, that “Other” was Rastus, a black man in a chef’s hat and white coat. For other products, it was Aunt Jemima or Uncle Ben. “There were too many surprises to count,” said Tankersley of the course, including the true story of Aunt Jemima. She was Nancy Green, a former slave hired in 1893 to promote pancake mix at the Chicago World’s Fair.The female hand in the universe of preparing food gets more subtle as advertising enters the era of second-wave feminism. Gone are the women in dresses pouring coffee or fussing over cakes in the daytime. But women are still in the kitchen, as in the TV ad Mannering used in her study of Tupperware parties — marketing artifacts of the 1950s that today still limit the hostess-saleswoman to commissions only. “Though we always think we’ve come so far, there (are) always, always things that need to be worked on,” Mannering said. “We should never (assume) everyone’s being treated equally and fairly.”Meanwhile, men remain just as stuck in their food roles of 50 years ago, mostly as guilt-free consumers of high-calorie snacks. The final flowering of that role might be the “Get Some Nuts” TV ads for Snickers, a “man candy” chock full of protein and energy. In food ads, women aspire to low calories, satisfaction, and even female agency — from yogurt, say, a product still largely pitched to one gender. The marketing subtext often even co-opts a standard second-wave feminist joke: Who needs men? (When you have yogurt, at least.)Summer demographicsThe same joke, in its own way, was repeated in the course. Of 13 students, only one was a man, a fact that Morgan attributed to having “gender” in the course title.But the demographics in this class were in other ways typical of the Summer School. The four high school students made up about a quarter of the class, the same proportion as in the whole program. There were two foreign students in the class, from Taiwan and Australia. In the School at large, the percentage of international students is higher, 37 percent last year. Mannering, who works for a bank in Melbourne, took three months off to tour the United States, but started her visit with the course. “I was flattered,” said Morgan.“I wanted a base in the States,” said Mannering, “so I chose summer school. Harvard was an obvious choice as it’s — in my mind — the best university in the world. Doing summer school allowed me to get to know Cambridge and Boston, and have a temporary ‘home’ in America.”The undergraduates in the course were also expressive of a geographical range — New York, Virginia, Alabama — that that is typical for Harvard year-round.Something else about Morgan’s students was likely true of everyone at the Summer School. “Most were exploring something about themselves,” she said. That included a native Southerner (now a Boston-area lawyer) who did a final paper on North Carolina barbeque, and was shocked to discover that most such operations are run by men. (That matched Morgan’s general take on food prep: Women cook, men grill.)There’s yet another way that the course was like a lot of others at the Summer School: There was fun, too. Students could join the gym, play in a pops band or orchestra, row on the Charles River, volunteer at nonprofits, take sponsored tours around Boston, or venture out to Cape Cod or Tanglewood or even as far as Rhode Island or Maine.“Boston is just a T stop away,” said Greif, the Californian teenager. “History and more history await to be explored, and I want to explore everything.”Morgan’s students took time on a July Saturday to visit the outdoor market at Haymarket and the food-intensive Feast of St. Joseph street festival in Boston’s North End. The trip included a look at the site of the landmark Boston Cooking School (1879-1902), where Fannie Farmer, of cookbook fame, studied and taught.What inspired the course? For one, Morgan read the Works Progress Administration slave narratives as a graduate student, with an eye to how former slaves would “use food as a means of exerting power in a situation in which they were powerless.” It was slavery, and the legacy of African foods and spices, that made Southern cooking what it is, she said. Food historian Frederick Douglass Opie, author of “Hog and Hominy: Soul Food from Africa to America” (2008) was a guest lecturer. He was a 2012-2013 fellow at the W.E.B. Du Bois Institute.Morgan was also inspired by her work at Schlesinger, which last year included cataloging the papers of Jean Wade Rindlaub, a New York advertising executive who, among other things, created ads for cake mixes and other convenience foods. Her secret involved direct emotional appeals to women. Her papers are a window into the machinery of marketing food.Mannering was struck by how different advertising is in Australia. “There is a lot of ‘mother-guilt’ in American advertising,” she said, “brands telling women that their product is healthy and best for their child in an attempt to create insecurities and secure the demographic.”More than one student came away from Morgan’s class with a critical eye on sugar, which Tankersley said food companies are increasingly adding to make up for using less fat. “I could go on and on about how dangerous it is for us, but let’s just say that after that class I was prepared to swear off all sugar (aside from fruit),” she wrote. “Then I made a beeline for a cup of coffee Oreo ice cream. So it’s a work in progress.”
Employees of Imperial Riviera who were employed on 31 July and worked for at least half a month in July will be paid a season bonus in the net amount of HRK 500. The award for the season in the same amount will be paid to all students who have worked for at least two weeks in July. Prizes will be paid out in August with salary / compensation for the month of July. Cover photo: Valamar Collection Imperial Hotel Imperial Riviera dd, based in Rab Imperial Riviera has in its portfolio nine hotels and resorts and two campsites, with a total of 3.618 accommodation units and capacities for about 9.000 guests. After the successful completion of the process of merging the Hotel Makarska with the Rab Imperial, as of June 28, the hotel houses Imperial and Makarska have been operating under the name Imperial Riviera. “Imperial Riviera is one of the ten largest tourism companies in Croatia, which currently employs more than a thousand employees. We want to continue to motivate our hard-working employees in their successful work, so we decided to additionally reward them for a job well done for the first part of the season. ” said Vlado Miš, President of the Management Board of Imperial Riviere dd VALAMAR RIVIERA EMPLOYED 7.000TH WORKER After Valamar Riviera, now a subsidiary, Imperial Riviera has decided on an additional reward for its employees for successfully completing the first part of the tourist season. HELIOS FAROS COMES OUT OF BANKRUPTCY: VALAMAR AND PBZ CROATIA INSURANCE INVEST 650 MILLION HRK IN RECONSTRUCTION RELATED NEWS:
Models are only simulations of reality. In science, they have a long history of simplifying complex physical phenomena in an attempt to understand them. Many times, empirical evidence can correct a model. The model then becomes a more accurate simulation, and can even provide additional insights and make predictions. Can modeling work for the unobservable, unrepeatable past? A story posted on Space.com has a title like a Kipling fictional story: “Why Early Earth Did Not Freeze.” Reporter Aaron L. Gronstal for Astrobiology Magazine addressed a well-known puzzle in climate history: how the early earth prevented a deep freeze. According to stellar evolution theory, stars like our sun begin with much lower luminosity. Four billion years ago, the sun would not have had enough energy to keep Earth’s oceans from freezing. Yet evolutionists and geologists believe that the earth had liquid oceans at least as early as 3.7 billion years ago. This is the “faint young sun paradox.” Geophysicists and climate historians have proposed more “greenhouse effect” or meteor bombardments to warm the earth, but without convincing success. Most doubt that there could have been enough carbon dioxide, methane or ammonia to provide a space blanket. Gronstal reported models by German scientists that reduce the amount of carbon dioxide required to heat the earth. “The model showed that a partial pressure of only 2.9 millibars of CO2 would have been needed during the late Archaean and early Proterozoic periods in order to bring the surface temperature of the Earth above freezing,” the article said. “This result, although contrary to previous studies, agrees with current geological data.” The paradox thus disappears. Whether this claim will have ripple effects on assumptions about the impact of carbon dioxide remains to be seen. Will it renew fears about global warming? What does it mean to other geological periods when life was present? And a question for philosophers of science: what was driving the model – the physics, or the assumptions of stellar and geological theories? Another geology news story is shaking up the world – so to speak. National Geographic News claimed that continents get pushed, not sucked, into place. This new idea, “contrary to accepted theory,” rearranges ideas about a theoretical supercontinent named Pangaea that split up 200 million years ago on the evolutionary timeline. This “provocative” new theory pictures the continents moving back-and-forth like an accordion, instead of by the suction of deep ocean basins. Maybe a superplume of magma in the mantle is the driving force. Yet the article includes doubts that geologists know any of this, because like the climate story above, it is based on models:This accordionlike action, dubbed the Wilson Cycle, has been recognized for more than 40 years, but the forces responsible for it are unknown. Moreover, if current models thought to be responsible for these movements were applied to a 500-million-year-old Earth, they would not produce Pangaea in the right configuration. Why this reversal happened is unclear, and that’s disconcerting, [J. Brendan] Murphy said, because even though Pangaea is the best studied of the supercontinents, “something happened that we don’t understand.”Murphy agreed that his model is “speculative.” Applying the model forward, he said it makes Earth’s future “a lot more fun to study” even though he could never know the outcome, because a new supercontinent wouldn’t form for 75 million years. National Geographic quoted Murphy explaining where continental motion fits into grand schemes of evolution. “Most people believe that for at least the last two and a half billion years, the Earth’s history has been dominated by the amalgamation, breakup, and reforming of supercontinents,” he said. “It really is an underpinning of the evolution of the planet.” The new ideas were reported also in a short article in Science Daily called “Pangaea Conundrum.”With the faint-young-sun story, we have another case of a contradiction that should have falsified a belief being circumvented by tweaking a simulation. And with the Pangaea story, we have geologists playing games on the job. This is like what the evolutionary biologists do with their in silico organisms (imaginary life-forms that can evolve in ways real organisms never could). Climate is very complex and difficult to model, even for today’s weather. Can these scientists really know what carbon dioxide did to the earth 3.9 billion years ago, without going back there in a time machine? How many other factors (clouds, outgassing, feedback mechanisms) could have swamped the effects of carbon dioxide? (for instance, see this article on EurekAlert that explores possible effects of giant ocean eddies that might have a “profound influence on marine life and on the earth’s climate”). How justifiable is it to run present observed continental motions back recklessly for billions of years into the past? The observation-to-assumption ratio is so small it is like homeopathic medicine – one molecule of data in a swimming pool of speculation. Models that cannot be checked with empirical data become playgrounds for storytellers. Never are these astro-geo-biologists content to follow the evidence and say, “Well, I guess the earth couldn’t be as old as that.” No way; they have their timeline, with its mythical Late Heavy Bombardment, First Oxygenation Event (after the mythical Origin of Life), mythical supercontinents Pangaea, Rodinia and Gondwana (which sound like characters in an earth religion), and all the subsequent Darwinian fables that ride on top. When a contradiction threatens the Grand Myth, they can always invent simulations that can be tweaked and forced sufficiently to match their hard-core, unalterable beliefs about billions of years and evolution. Models become their carts before the observational horse. Who needs a horse? They have horseless carriages, driven by the gas of imagination, polluting the atmosphere of knowledge. Whether this is Model A or Model T, we don’t know. Even a broken flivver can be pushed if it won’t go on its own and the horse is going in the other direction.(Visited 16 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Essential Reading! Get my first book: The Only Sale Guide You’ll Ever Need “The USA Today bestseller by the star sales speaker and author of The Sales Blog that reveals how all salespeople can attain huge sales success through strategies backed by extensive research and experience.” Buy Now There is a difference between “goals” and what I call “disciplines,” something I wrote about in my first book, The Only Sales Guide You’ll Ever Need. The distinction is critical (more about that later). There are also two types of goals you need to set, and most people only set the first type of goal for themselves, cheating themselves of what they really want (if they have even done the work to know what they want in the first place, as most people haven’t been given a model of how to determine that for themselves, and so, they drift).Since it’s the time of year where people are engaged in this thinking, let’s take a look at what you really need to do to make 2019 different from 2018, starting with goals.Event-driven GoalsEvent-driven goals have a date by which some outcome will be reached. You might set a goal to generate $2,000,000 in annual revenue by December 31. When that date pops up on the calendar, you will have either accomplished your goal or failed to do so. Running a marathon is also an event-driven goal. There is an event, and you run the distance, or you don’t.Once you reach the date of the event, the goal is now over. The deadline is part of what makes goals powerful.Identity GoalsIdentity goals are about who you want to be and what you want your life to be like, a process I call “Achievement Design.” Instead of an event, like $2,000,000 in revenue, your financial goal might be something like “create generational wealth for my children and grandchildren.” That’s a very different financial goal than generating a certain amount of revenue in a business, isn’t it? Not only does it raise the bar, it’s worth pursuing over the course of a lifetime. It also requires a very different set of behavioral changes (of which there is more to say).You might also decide that you want to be structurally sound, flexible, mobile, with the energy and endurance to keep up with your grandchildren–or great grandchildren. That goal for your physical health is a very different type of marathon. Structurally sound means lifting weights, flexible means stretching and yoga, energy means diet and sleep and hydration, and endurance means cardiovascular exercise. Identity goals don’t have an end date, and there is no “checking the box” that indicates the goal is reached. They require routine maintenance.This doesn’t mean we have no use for event-driven goals. These goals with end dates are the milestones that roll up underneath your identity goals. The revenue you generate in your business provides you with the money you need to invest for long-term wealth. The marathon is evidence you are fit, and you have the endurance and stamina you want as an identity goal.Why Resolutions FailThe primary reason New Year’s Resolutions fail is because the person making the resolution isn’t really resolved. They haven’t broken the goal down into the small, manageable actions they need to take every day, something I call “disciplines,” the things you do consistently, whether or not you want to.If you don’t have what you want, the most likely reason is that you are not doing the work necessary to have it. If you want something to be different in the new year, try setting identity goals, the event-driven goals that serve as milestones and prove you are making progress, and develop the daily and weekly disciplines that make this year your best ever.
The teams will compete over four days across five divisions; Men’s 30’s, Men’s 40’s and 45’s, Men’s 50’s and 55’s, Women’s 30’s and 40’s and Mixed 30’s. Touch Football is one of 52 sports to be played at the 13th Australian Masters Games, with approximately 8,500 participants taking part across the 10 day event. Round games will be played on Thursday, Friday and Saturday at City Touch, with finals to be played on Sunday at the following times:Men’s 50’s and 55’s – 10.20amMixed 30’s – 12.50pmMen’s 40’s and 45’s – 1.40pm Men’s 30’s and 40’s – 2.30pmMen’s 30’s – 3.20pm To keep up-to-date with all of the latest results from the Touch Football component of the 13th Australian Masters Games, please visit the Touch Football South Australia website:www.touchsa.com.auTo keep up-to-date with all of the latest news and information from the event, please visit the Australian Masters Games website:www.australianmastersgames.com.au
Slip Cup New Idea Beer PongLet’s face it – beer pong, for as fantastic a tailgating game as it is, is also a bit unhygienic. Players throw ping-pong balls onto the ground, clean them off with dirty water, and then drink the beer they’ve come in contact with. After you’ve played a while, you get used to it. But apparently, you no longer have to. Five friends from Connecticut have invented the “Slip Cup”, which sits on top of each cup, blocking the balls from hitting the beer. They also don’t interfere with gameplay at all – they’re basically smaller versions of the normal cups you already use. It’s a genius idea. KickstarterThe Slip Cup is trying to raise $70,000 on Kickstarter to get the product into major retailers. So far, they’ve racked up just over $13,000.Here’s the video from the Kickstarter page. Needless to say, this is a game-changer both for tailgating and house parties. Would you buy one?[Patch]
Greyhound’s decision to pull out of Western Canada has blindsided both workers and riders.The company announced Monday it would be ending service in Manitoba, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and B.C. — except for a route between Vancouver and Seattle — at the end of October.“I think a lot of these communities, they don’t have any trains, they don’t have any planes, and all they had was the bus. It’s going to be a huge impact,” ATU Local 1374 President Eric Carr said.“Not just for the people that are — the seniors or the kids that don’t have a driver’s license — we also transport — blood –, and we move so many items that are just basic for a lot of these communities: the parts that fix their tractors and everything else.”Carr said Greyhound’s policies have always been America-driven because it is an American company.He said suggestions from employees on how to attract more riders in Canada haven’t always been taken seriously.“We’ve been for years telling them: ‘this is what you need to do here, this is what you need to do here’ to give the riders a better experience. They wanted all their trips to be at night because they focused on freight. People don’t want to ride a bus all night,” Carr said.Alberta Transportation Minister Brian Mason was also surprised by the decision.He told CityNews, there are alternatives in many communities in the province, but the government is evaluating how many people will be left in the lurch.“We’re going to continue to dig into this matter and see what role there is, or there may be to assist making sure that all Albertans have access to the transportation that they need,” he said.Mason said they can’t make any commitments yet.“There’s going to be a big gap here,” Carr said, adding the federal government may have to step in.“If the Trudeau government sees a need for a national bus company to survive, I believe that if that’s the case, the company would reverse its decision, if we got some sort of subsidy.”
With files from Canadian [email protected]@aptn.ca The committee also urged Canada to undertake an independent review of police actions during a Mohawk land dispute in 2008.This is the second time it expressed concerns with how the Ontario Provincial Police (OPP) handled the protests in Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory.“In the previous review of Canada and now in this review, they keep coming back to this and saying there has to be accountability,” said Craig Benjamin, who works for Amnesty.For the last decade, Amnesty International has been pushing for that accountability over what it calls an “excessive” and “disproportionate use of force” by the OPP.The OPP had deployed over 200 officers to police the Mohawk protests, including the Tactics and Rescue Unit, commonly called the sniper squad. After five Mohawk men were arrested in April, 2008, they were kept in nylon restraints – or zip-ties – for up to 13 hours in cells at an OPP detachment.In 2016, the OPP did an internal review and claimed that the use of zip ties on the Mohawk men in custody was reasonable.Benjamin said there are too many serious questions to leave it at that.“It’s that possibility that police officers sworn to protect the public would use those powers to deliberately inflict harm, or try to hurt these men, humiliate these men by keeping their hands tied for hours and hours,” said Benjamin.“And did this happen because of racism or because the attitudes of these officers towards land defenders?”When the UN committee reconvened in late November, Canada’s response was that it was satisfied with the OPP’s internal review and had no plans for any further investigation.The UN report made note that “the committee remains concerned about the absence of an independent inquiry into the allegation of ill-treatment and excessive use of force against Mohawk men detained by the OPP during the protests.“The State party should conduct an independent inquiry into the Ontario Provincial Police’s handling of the incidents at Tyendinaga in 2008.”Benjamin said Canada’s inaction on this issue is at odds with how the country projects itself as a human rights champion on an international stage“What we have here is a very strong message that simply having the mechanism and the possibility of justice isn’t good enough if you fail to use them,” he said.APTN Investigates produced a two-part documentary on the protest.Dan Doreen is a Mohawk land defender and one of the men arrested and zip-tied in cells in 2008.He’s thankful to Amnesty for bringing the concerns forward, but he’s not optimistic anything will change.“What has Canada done about it? Nothing really,” said Doreen. “They answer it by saying there was a review by the OPP and that was good enough for Canada, so should I expect anything more? Not really.”In November, Amnesty sent a letter to Ontario Premier Doug Ford asking for an apology and independent review of police actions. No response to date.“We have the next Mike Harris as the premier of Ontario and I don’t expect anything good to come from Doug Ford,” said Doreen.Doreen said he’s happy to have the story out there people know what happened.There’s no mechanism that forces Canada to comply with the recommendations from the United Nations committee.“What we do have is public pressure,” said Benjamin.He said these recommendations coming from an international body of human rights experts can act as a “catalyst or eye-opener.”“It can lead to this moment where the public says the government response to say we trust the police to investigate themselves, isn’t good enough,” said Benjamin.APTN requested comment from the OPP but was told its new commissioner doesn’t officially start until December 17.APTN did hear back from Public Safety Canada, which said it was up to the government of Ontario to respond. Francyne Joe (right) is president of Native Women’s Association of Canada. (APTN/Todd Lamirande photo)Holly MooreTrina RoacheAPTN NewsA United Nations committee is calling on Canada to act on the “forced sterilization” of Indigenous women and girls dating back to the 1970s.The Committee against Torture took issue with Canada’s human rights record in a report released Friday in Ottawa.The “extensive forced or coerced sterilization” of Indigenous women and a failure to address outstanding issues related to the Tyendinaga stand-off in 2008 were among them.The committee’s report comes as groups like the Assembly of First Nations and Amnesty International sound the alarm on ongoing human-rights violations in Canada.A proposed class-action lawsuit representing at least 55 women was launched in October 2017.APTN Investigates examined the issue in 2017.“To engage in an invasive, medically unnecessary surgery without one’s free, full and informed consent is a very serious violation of a person’s right to bodily integrity,” Native Women’s Association President Francyne Joe told a news conference responding to the report,“The Canadian medical profession must respect consent and the Canadian government must defend consent.”Prior to the release of the report, Justice Minister Jodi Wilson-Raybould’s office said the government is taking a “public-health approach” to the issue, though the government believes everyone must receive culturally safe health services no matter where they live.Wilson-Raybould’s office has pointed to existing provisions within the Criminal Code meant to forbid “a range of criminal behaviour” that would cover forced sterilizations, including on aggravated assault and on terminating pregnancies against expectant mothers’ wishes.The committee called on Canada to ensure all allegations are “impartially investigated” and persons responsible are held accountable.Canada should also adopt legislative and policy measures to prevent and criminalize involuntary sterilization and define free, prior and informed consent.While Canada was commended for establishing a national inquiry into missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls, the committee expressed serious concerns about continued violence against Indigenous women.The report points out Canada has not provided any information on “the number of investigations, prosecutions, convictions and sentences imposed on cases of gender-based violence, in particular against Indigenous women and girls.”It also says the state needs to take legislative and policy measures to stop women from being sterilized against their will.