Monthly Archive: August 2019

Aqua Star USA creates a two man underwater scooter

first_img Citation: Aqua Star USA creates a two man underwater scooter (2011, April 29) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-04-aqua-star-usa-underwater-scooter.html (PhysOrg.com) — Have you ever had a Jacques Cousteau fantasy? A yearning to live your own version of 20,000 leagues under the sea? Or maybe, you just want to see the great barrier reef on something other than the Discovery Channel? Either way, unless you are an experienced swimmer with a solid set of diving skills, your dreams are out of reach. Right? More information: www.aquastarscooters.com/products/ The AS-2 Scooter is powered by a rechargeable battery, which can last up to 2.5 hours. For more details on pricing and availability interested parties will need to contact Aqua Star USA. Explore further The AS-2 Scooter can seat two people at a time, which is an improvement over the previous model. It features an improved helmet which allows the user to have a 99% distortion free view of the ocean. This model is also both lighter and faster than its predecessor, which allows users to go farther in the same span of time, and between the air supply and the battery time is a factor.The helmets give the user up to 70 minutes of oxygen, taken from scuba tanks. Driving the AS-2 is a lot like driving an on land scooter. The only noticeable difference is the dual engines, which allows for both vertical and horizontal movement at the same time. The AS-2 is able to travel at speeds of up to 3.1mph, with a maximum depth of up to 12 meters. So, maybe you won’t be recreating 20,000 leagues under the sea, at least not yet.center_img High-tech hydrogen scooter designed to sell clean technology © 2010 PhysOrg.com Not anymore.Aqua Star USA has created a mini submarine like device, that can take you down into the depths without having to have friends at the local naval academy. The device, called the AS-2 Scooter, is basically an underwater scooter. The scooter, which is designed with boaters, diving enthusiasts, turnkey leisure operators and dive operators in mind, is the successor to the AS-1. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Chemists claim to have solved riddle of how life began on Earth

first_img New computational approaches speed up the exploration of the universe This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Journal information: Nature Chemistry Scientists have debated for years the various possibilities that could have led to life evolving on Earth, and the arguments have only grown more heated in recent years as many have suggested that it did not happen here it all, instead, it was brought to us from comets or some other celestial body. Most of the recent debate has found scientists in one of three chicken-or-the-egg first camps: RNA world advocates, metabolism-first supporters and those who believe that cell membranes must have developed first. The chemists with this new effort believe they have found a way to show that all three arguments are both right and wrong—they believe they have found a way to show that everything necessary for life to evolve could have done so from just hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen cyanide and ultraviolet light and that those building blocks could have all existed at the same time—in their paper, they report that using just those three basic ingredients they were able to produce more than 50 nucleic acids—precursors to DNA and RNA molecules. They note that early meteorites carried with them ingredients that would react with nitrogen already in the atmosphere, producing a lot of hydrogen cyanide. By dissolving in water, it could have very easily come into contact with hydrogen sulfide, while being exposed to ultraviolet light from the sun. And that, they claim, would have been all that was needed to get things going.The findings by the team are sure to garner a great deal of interest in the scientific community and others will no doubt be testing and commenting on their findings. If what they claim passes muster, their work will likely be remembered as one of the great achievements of our time. © 2015 Phys.orgcenter_img More information: Common origins of RNA, protein and lipid precursors in a cyanosulfidic protometabolism, Nature Chemistry (2015) DOI: 10.1038/nchem.2202AbstractA minimal cell can be thought of as comprising informational, compartment-forming and metabolic subsystems. To imagine the abiotic assembly of such an overall system, however, places great demands on hypothetical prebiotic chemistry. The perceived differences and incompatibilities between these subsystems have led to the widely held assumption that one or other subsystem must have preceded the others. Here we experimentally investigate the validity of this assumption by examining the assembly of various biomolecular building blocks from prebiotically plausible intermediates and one-carbon feedstock molecules. We show that precursors of ribonucleotides, amino acids and lipids can all be derived by the reductive homologation of ​hydrogen cyanide and some of its derivatives, and thus that all the cellular subsystems could have arisen simultaneously through common chemistry. The key reaction steps are driven by ultraviolet light, use ​hydrogen sulfide as the reductant and can be accelerated by Cu(I)–Cu(II) photoredox cycling. Citation: Chemists claim to have solved riddle of how life began on Earth (2015, March 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-03-chemists-riddle-life-began-earth.html Chemistry in a post-meteoritic-impact scenario. A series of post-impact environmental events are shown along with the chemistry (boxed) proposed to occur as a consequence of these events. a, Dissolution of atmospherically produced hydrogen cyanide results in the conversion of vivianite (the anoxic corrosion product of the meteoritic inclusion schreibersite) into mixed ferrocyanide salts and phosphate salts, with counter cations being provided through neutralization and ion-exchange reactions with bedrock and other meteoritic oxides and salts. b, Partial evaporation results in the deposition of the least-soluble salts over a wide area, and further evaporation deposits the most-soluble salts in smaller, lower-lying areas. c, After complete evaporation, impact or geothermal heating results in thermal metamorphosis of the evaporite layer, and the generation of feedstock precursor salts (in bold). d, Rainfall on higher ground (left) leads to rivulets or streams that flow downhill, sequentially leaching feedstocks from the thermally metamorphosed evaporite layer. Solar irradiation drives photoredox chemistry in the streams. Convergent synthesis can result when streams with different reaction histories merge (right), as illustrated here for the potential synthesis of arabinose aminooxazoline at the confluence of two streams that contained glycolaldehyde, and leached different feedstocks before merging. Credit: (c) Nature Chemistry (2015) doi:10.1038/nchem.2202 (Phys.org)—A team of chemists working at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, at Cambridge in the UK believes they have solved the mystery of how it was possible for life to begin on Earth over four billion years ago. In their paper published in the journal Nature Chemistry, the team describes how they were able to map reactions that produced two and three-carbon sugars, amino acids, ribonucleotides and glycerol—the material necessary for metabolism and for creating the building blocks of proteins and ribonucleic acid molecules and also for allowing for the creation of lipids that form cell membranes.last_img read more

Researchers find a way to convert waste heat to electricity at nanoscale

first_img © 2015 Phys.org Citation: Researchers find a way to convert waste heat to electricity at nano-scale (2015, April 13) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-04-electricity-nano-scale.html As microelectronics have grown smaller, the problem of waste heat has grown bigger—not only does excess heat create problems for system components, it also represents wasted energy. If that heat could be converted to electricity and used to help run devices, it would allow them to run longer while using less battery power. In this new effort, the team working in Germany reports on experiments they conducted using quantum dots—and idea proposed four years ago by a team working at the University of Geneva—they envisioned using quantum dots to construct a three terminal device that would allow an electrical charge generated from a heat difference to pass from one terminal to another without allowing the heat to transfer as well. In their lab, they built a rectifier (a device that converts AC current to DC) based on two types of quantum dots, one made of gallium arsenide, the other aluminum gallium arsenide. One of the dots was affixed to an electric circuit, which provided alternating current in the form of voltage fluctuations—the other dot served as the receiver allowing direct current to flow out.It should be noted that the researchers have not actually converted waste heat to electricity, instead they have used voltage fluctuations from a voltage source to mimic the process, which they claim, proves the original idea could work. They were forced to take this route because the technology does not yet exist to measure the differences between the two dots accurately. The next step will be to modify the device to convert the waste heat directly to electricity and then to figure out a way to measure the results. The team appears confident their approach will work and predict such devices will soon make their way into actual products. Explore further A quantum dot energy harvester: Turning waste heat into electricity on the nanoscale Journal information: Physical Review Letterscenter_img (a) Schematic operating principle. Top: Designation of system components. Center: Asymmetric configuration with charge current flow to the right. Bottom: Asymmetric configuration with charge current flow to the left. For details see main text. (b) Electron microscopy image of the sample. The top, current carrying part of the system is shaded in blue, the bottom part, where the voltage fluctuations are supplied, in red. The respective QDs QDt and QDb are highlighted in dark blue and dark red. (c) Equivalent circuit with corresponding capacitances. The current through the upper part is measured via a picoamperemeter. The two upper side gates and their voltages Vgl and Vgr control the conductances of the left and right channel, whereas Vgb influences both channels almost equally and shifts the QD’s energy levels. Vnoise can be added to Vgb and provides the fluctuations which the device is able to rectify. Credit: Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 146805 – Published 10 April 2015. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.146805 More information: Voltage Fluctuation to Current Converter with Coulomb-Coupled Quantum Dots, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 146805 – Published 10 April 2015. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.146805ABSTRACTWe study the rectification of voltage fluctuations in a system consisting of two Coulomb-coupled quantum dots. The first quantum dot is connected to a reservoir where voltage fluctuations are supplied and the second one is attached to two separate leads via asymmetric and energy-dependent transport barriers. We observe a rectified output current through the second quantum dot depending quadratically on the noise amplitude supplied to the other Coulomb-coupled quantum dot. The current magnitude and direction can be switched by external gates, and maximum output currents are found in the nA region. The rectification delivers output powers in the pW region. Future devices derived from our sample may be applied for energy harvesting on the nanoscale beneficial for autonomous and energy-efficient electronic applications. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers working at Germany’s University of Würzburg has shown that a theory developed to describe a way to convert waste heat in microelectronics to electricity can work in the real world. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the team describes how they used quantum dots to create a three terminal device capable of generating electricity by harvesting waste heat.last_img read more

Scientists readying to create first image of a black hole

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further More information: www.eventhorizontelescope.org/ Sagittarius A*. This image was taken with NASA’s Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Credit: Public domain Astronomers poised to capture image of supermassive black hole © 2017 Phys.org Citation: Scientists readying to create first image of a black hole (2017, February 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-02-scientists-readying-image-black-hole.html (Phys.org)—A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. The project is the result of collaboration between teams manning radio receivers around the world and a team at MIT that will assemble the data from the other teams and hopefully create an image. The project has been ongoing for approximately 20 years as project members have sought to piece together what has now become known as the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT). Each of the 12 participating radio receiving teams will use equipment that has been installed for the project to record data received at a frequency of 230GHz during April 5 through the 14th. The data will be recorded onto hard drives which will all be sent to MIT Haystack Observatory in Massachusetts, where a team will stitch the data together using a technique called very long baseline array interferometry—in effect, creating the illusion of a single radio telescope as large as the Earth. The black hole they will all focus on is the one believed to be at the center of the Milky Way galaxy—Sagittarius A*.A black hole cannot be photographed, of course, light cannot reflect or escape from it, thus, there would be none to capture. What the team is hoping to capture is the light that surrounds the black hole at its event horizon, just before it disappears.Sagittarius A* is approximately 26,000 light-years from Earth and is believed to have a mass approximately four million times greater than the sun—it is also believed that its event horizon is approximately 12.4 million miles across. Despite its huge size, it would still be smaller than a pin prick against our night sky, hence the need for the array of radio telescopes.The researchers believe the image that will be created will be based on a ring around a black blob, but because of the Doppler effect, it should look to us like a crescent. Processing at Haystack is expected to take many months, which means we should not expect to see an image released to the press until sometime in 2018.last_img read more

European eel found to spawn across 2000 km wide region of the

first_imgEuropean eel. Credit: Wikipedia/CC BY-SA 3.0 Explore further Journal information: Biology Letters A team of researchers with members from Japan, Sweden, Denmark and Germany has found evidence showing that European eel spawn across a 2000 km wide region of the North Atlantic Ocean. In their paper published in the journal Biology Letters, the group describes their study of recently hatched eel larvae in the North Atlantic Ocean, and what they found. © 2019 Science X Network Citation: European eel found to spawn across 2000 km wide region of the North Atlantic Ocean (2019, April 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-04-european-eel-spawn-km-wide.htmlcenter_img More information: Michael J. Miller et al. Spawning by the European eel across 2000 km of the Sargasso Sea, Biology Letters (2019). DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2018.0835 Study shows European eel migration not as uniform and simple as thought Almost a hundred years ago, scientists discovered that European eels have a unique lifestyle—one that includes spawning in the Sargasso Sea, which is approximately 5000 to 7000 kilometers from where they live as juveniles and adults in European and North African rivers. But the extent of their spawning has never been pinned down. The researchers note also that the number of European eels has been dropping dramatically since the 1970s, and nobody knows why. The current population is believed to be approximately 5 percent of what it once was. In this new effort, the researchers used multiple ships to survey large parts of the North Atlantic Ocean from approximately 70°W to 50°W—to learn more about the spawning habits of the endangered eel.The Sargasso Sea is actually an area entirely within the North Atlantic Ocean, just off the east coast of the United States—it is the only sea in the world that has no land boundaries. It became singled out as voyagers discovered it was bounded by four ocean currents that form a gyre. It was named for the Sargassum seaweed that grows in abundance there. Prior research has shown the area to be mostly free of geographical formations—its bottom is mostly flat. The area is known for its marine plants and for its deep blue hue.The researchers report that their survey efforts showed recently hatched eel larvae floating across a 2000 km-wide region of the North Atlantic Ocean—not just the Sargasso Sea. They noted also that prior researchers working as far back as 1921 had found the larvae in similar parts of the ocean. The researchers suggest that despite severe reductions in population, the European eel still spawns as far and wide as it ever did. They suggest also that their findings may contribute to a plan for preventing the eels from disappearing altogether. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Putting Yourself in Their Shoes May Make You Less Open to Their

first_imgAt the beginning of the experiment, the two groups of participants reported similar initial attitudes toward universal health care. However, those who engaged in the perspective taking exercise reported less receptiveness and showed less attitude change compared with the control group. As the researchers hypothesized, personal values helped to explain this effect – participants who engaged in perspective taking reported that their worldview and morals were less aligned with their partner’s compared with those in the control group. “As political polarization in America has increased, there has been a lot of discussion about how to bring people with opposing views to the table, in order to have more productive dialogues,” says lead researcher Rhia Catapano of the Stanford University Graduate School of Business. “Our findings show that self-persuasion can be an effective way to move people from entrenched views, but that perspective taking can actually undermine its effectiveness.” Althoughpolicymakers and pundits often refer to perspective taking when they talk aboutaddressing polarization, the scientific evidence for its effectiveness as aself-persuasion strategy is mixed. On the one hand, people might generate morepersuasive arguments or relate more to alternative viewpoints after takingsomeone else’s perspective. On the other hand, it’s possible that trying to seethings from the other side could make people more entrenched in their views,especially when they view alternative perspectives in a competitive light. Andthe researchers replicated these findings with another online sample of 998participants recruited from Amazon MTurk. Catapanoand colleagues hypothesized that taking the perspective of someone with anopposing opinion may backfire when that person is seen as having very differentvalues. Together,the findings shed light on the self-persuasion strategies that are most likelyto help bridge ideological divides. Intriguingly, simply generating argumentsfor the other side – the control condition in each experiment – actually seemedto increase participants’ receptiveness. For their first online experiment, the researchers recruited participants from Reddit with the aim of reaching a large sample of people interested in political issues. The 484 participants completed a survey, in which they reported demographic information and rated their support for universal health care (from 0, strongly against, to 100, strongly support). Trying to take someone else’s perspective may make you less open to their opposing views, according to findings published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. Coauthors on theresearch include Zakary L. Tormala of the Stanford University Graduate Schoolof Business and Derek D. Rucker of the Kellogg School of Management atNorthwestern University. center_img Halfof the participants were instructed to reflect on their partner’s intentionsand interests and visualize his life and experiences. And all of theparticipants generated an argument that their partner might give in support ofhis attitude toward universal health care. “Having people think of arguments for the opposing view but without engaging in perspective taking, was quite effective in opening people up to the opposing view,” says Catapano. “We found that encouraging.” Findingsfrom a second online experiment suggest that perspective taking enhancesparticipants’ openness to an alternative viewpoint when their values arecongruent with those of their partner. Butwhat if people felt as though they were taking the perspective of someone whoholds similar values despite having a different opinion? Theexperiments reported in this article were preregistered via the Open ScienceFramework and the stimuli, analysis code, and anonymized data for theexperiments are available online (Experiment 1; Experiment 1 replication; Experiment 2). Thisarticle has received the badges for Open Data, Open Materials, andPreregistration. “Whenpeople try to take the perspective of those on the other side, they’re actuallyquite good at it. They write arguments that people on that side might actuallycome up with, rather than dismissing the task or writing poor arguments onpurpose,” Catapano explains. “The problem is that the arguments appeal to thevalues of the person whose perspective they’re taking, rather than their ownvalues.” The participants then received information about the person they would supposedly be interacting with in the next task: a 22-year-old White male from Ohio. Importantly, the partner’s political ideology and attitude toward universal health care were always opposite those of each participant.last_img read more

Go citrus

first_imgBright coloured citrus fruits like orange, lemon and lime can make your skin glow.Bollywood beauty and makeup expert Puja Taluja reveals how these Vitamin C rich fruits, known for their antioxidant properties, work well for your skin.Lime juice: Take a lime, squeeze it and add it to a glass of warm water with honey in it. Take a spoon and mix the contents well. Drink it every morning before breakfast. Lemon: Get glowing skin by simply rubbing a peeled lemon on your skin. But, don’t do it for long and be gentle while doing so. It shouldn’t be done longer than three minutes. Then wash it off with water. Orange: After eating the fruit, do not throw the skin. It can be used on your face. Dry the peels and grind them. Use the powder with water on your skin. This works as a natural scrub.last_img read more

Hear it out

first_imgThe BBCSSO who have been majorly involved in cultural exchange and student interactions will be touring the country and the city for the first time ever. The orchestra is formed of 65 members who shall be holding a two-hour concert in which violinist Nicola Benedetti and composer James MacMillan will also be joining. Music education expert Paul Rissman will also mark his presence in two special concerts and workshops for students on 1 April.BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra is on a three-city tour in March and April with concerts, educational workshops and exchange between students of India and Scotland. The visit is the centrepiece of the orchestra’s activities leading up to the 2014 Commonwealth Games.Gavin Reid, director, BBC SSO said, ‘We are thrilled to be celebrating the Commonwealth Games with such an exciting and ambitious programme of events celebrating and sharing the wonderful musical culture of both Scotland and India.’last_img read more

Delhi court takes cognizance of complaint against Gaur

first_imgA court here on Thursday took cognizance of a complaint against Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) legislator Bhavna Gaur for allegedly misrepresenting facts about her educational qualifications in her election affidavits.Metropolitan Magistrate Pankaj Sharma took cognisance of a complaint filed by lawyer Samarendra Nath Verma through his counsel PS Singh against the legislator from Palam Assembly constituency.The petitioner alleged that Gaur has furnished different information about her educational qualifications in her two election affidavits filed during the Delhi Assembly elections in 2013 and 2015. In 2013, she claimed to be Class 12 pass but in the 2015 affidavit, she mentioned herself as a Delhi University graduate and holding a Bachelor of Education degree from Maharshi Dayanand University in Rohtak, the petitioner claimed.last_img read more

Why hide contracts with FB YouTube from us HC asks Centre

first_imgDelhi High Court on Wednesday asked the government why it was “hiding” the contracts it has with social media sites like Facebook and Google and not submitted them despite orders issued five months ago.“Why are you not filing them (contract)? Why are you hiding them from us? Why aren’t you placing it? What is the hesitation? Why aren’t you doing it? It’s been five months since our May 7, 2015 direction,” a bench of justices Badar Durrez Ahmed and Sanjeev Sachdeva said. Also Read – Punjab & Sind Bank cuts MCLR by up to 20 basis pointsOn May 7, the Centre had sought time to place before the court the “exact nature of the contracts which have been entered into by the Government/Government Departments with the social media sites on the internet”.Thereafter on July 30, the government had again sought more time. Today, the bench asked,”What do the contracts say? Because we have a lot to say on that.” In response to the court’s query, the government counsel said the Centre has “standard contracts” with the sites and they are “not tailor-made”. Also Read – ‘The great gold bull market has begun’To this, the bench remarked, “that is exactly what he (petitioner) wants to say”. The court’s direction and observations came while hearing a PIL filed by former BJP leader K N Govindacharya who has raised questions on the usage of social media by government departments.The court, however, directed the Centre to ensure that the contracts it has pertaining to Facebook, YouTube and Whatsapp be filed before the next date of hearing on October 28, so that the matter can be decided finally. Advocate Virag Gupta, appearing for Govindacharya, told the court during the hearing that the “central government has become the biggest marketing agent for social media sites”.Gupta also contended that as per contracts the government has with these companies, it is “transferring/surrendering” all intellectual property rights of the data being uploaded on these sites. The high court on July 30 had asked the Centre to “come out” with details of contracts it has with social media sites to ascertain whether these websites have licences to the intellectual property rights of the contents uploaded.Earlier, the court had observed it appeared that when anything was uploaded on social media sites, the websites got a licence to the intellectual property rights (IPR) of the content without paying any royalty and had asked the Centre whether it was aware of this.last_img read more